Why People Buy: Motivation Research and Its Successful Application By Louis Cheskin Review

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My rating: 5 Stars

Why People Buy Review

This book is about Marketing and it was written by Louis Cheskin, who was a director of Color Research Institute in 1950’s, and this book is from that period of time. You might think that this book is old and it will it not be possible to use information provided in this book – but you’ll be wrong about it; because when you start reading it and use common sense, you’ll see that 90% of things from this book still apply to this date when it comes to marketing.

One thing that is changed is trend. We need to be focus on current trends and current economic situations when choosing what to sell. There are examples of good products that failed because they had been sold in the wrong time. You can’t sell luxury products when the economic recession is, and people will not spend money on luxury products – that’s just one of the examples.

In this book there are  a lot of focus on “Unconscious marketing” marketing methods, and it’s more about soft-sell marketing strategy. There’s a lot of focus on importance of choosing a right colors for package, and making the package for products quality, as well as creating a quality product itself. Also, there’s a lot of information about what kind of advertising works well for unconscious marketing and affecting the buyers mindset.

Everything in this book is created from running various of test for many years by institute run by Louis itself. I have to say that this book, although contain a lot of examples, pictures of advertising and packages aren’t provided to see the illustration of those examples – because that would be helpful as well. But since this book is fairly old, I can understand it. Many different industries is mentioned in this book, from automobiles, food, pets food, household products etc.

I see on Amazon that this book is not very popular, and I don’t understand why is that. This book does offer very good value for its content, and it’s a shame that it’s not more popular. I read this book on Scribd. I have to say also that author has mentioned more of his books in this one, but I can only find one more book available on Scribd to read – and I will read that book next also.

If you are someone like me, who is a beginner learner when it comes to marketing, then I would suggest you to read this book because it does touch so many important subjects about marketing. Such as importance of using the right colors, create good advertising, creating quality looking packages, setting the right prices. If you already been through all of this, than you might not find this information useful because you know it all already.

If you like, you can read my other reviews of Marketing & Sales Books

Also, check out my Best Business Books List

Why People Buy Summary:

INTRODUCTION BY DR. HOWARD D. HADLEY  

PREFACE 

We were trying to measure attitudes toward adult education, attitudes toward citizenship, social studies, traditional art and modern art. 

1. BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT DECISION 

In the field of predetermining how consumers will react to a new product or to an improvement of an old one, executive judgment is put to a great test. This is because the techniques used in determining consumer attitudes and in measuring consumer behavior in relation to the product are very complex. Some of the consumer reaction measuring methods are totally foreign to the business world. 

2. THE STRUCTURE OF A MARKETING PROGRAM 

Product quality is the number one side in a profitable marketing program, the package is the number two side, advertising is the number three side and pricing is number four. Actually, a marketing program depends on all four, equally. Weakness of any of the four sides will cut sales and diminish profits. 

3. IMAGERY AND COLOR IN PACKAGING 

Often the “image” symbolizes the company as a whole and serves as the focal point of the entire company image. It performs as the hub of the company identity to the consumer and is a trademark that may have favorable or unfavorable connotations. 

4. AUTO MAKERS’ PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED 

Several car designs should be parts of all tests merely as controls, as testing devices, not to be considered for actual production. This aspect is very important because it serves both as a control in the test situation, and as a means of keeping competition off the track. By conducting market tests on an unconscious level, by testing parts before finally testing complete car designs, and by including in these tests some designs as controls, we can get the answers for a car maker without revealing plans to competition. 

5. WHAT IS AND WHAT IS NOT PREDICTABLE 

The Sputniks made us more serious, more practical but not more rational. In 1958 I have seen more signs of psychological than of economic depression. The behavior of many still indicates a certain amount of desperation. The urging by some that we adopt communist methods in order to compete with Russia is irrational. The emphasis on physical science and willingness to neglect the humanities and the behavioral sciences in education is irrational. This irrational behavior, of course, was not predictable. 

6. DOGS, BUYERS AND SELLERS 

In order to find out what kind of label or package will motivate dog owners to buy a particular brand, we must conduct tests with controls. We must make sure that some factor outside of what is being tested, does not influence the respondents. 

7. ADVERTISING OF THE FUTURE 

We can now hope to have non-irritating commercials on T.V., the kind that will be acceptable to theatre operators. We can anticipate such development in the advertising field because unconscious-level tests can be conducted to ascertain whether the public will react favorably toward the commercial and whether it will be effective in producing sales. 

8. WHAT KIND OF RESEARCH? 

All of these research organizations, the pioneers and the imitators, have one thing in common. They all operate on the assumption that advertising is effective only on a conscious level, and that marketing is based on product familiarity. The great progress that has been made in the behavioral sciences in recent years is given no recognition. The findings of psycho- analysis are given no attention. The unconscious mind is given no consideration. Subconscious motivations are not measured. 

9. THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL AS A MEASURING INSTRUMENT 

The moment an individual is asked to judge and reveal his judgment, his defense mechanisms are immediately called into action. Ego-involvement and prestige identification immediately enter the test situation. Guards that operate both on conscious and unconscious levels take over the duties of protecting the ego and maintaining its privacy. 

10. HOW SCIENTIFIC CAN MARKETING RESEARCH BE? 

A physicist cannot predict the behavior of a single electron because the means he uses for observing or measuring its behavior changes its course. Therefore, he has to deal with great numbers of electrons in order to define their behavior. Human beings behave like electrons. A market researcher cannot predict the behavior of a single consumer because the means the researcher uses for observing or measuring the behavior often changes it. A market researcher has to deal with a great number of potential consumers in order to predict their pattern of behavior. 

11. WHY IS RESEARCH SO VITAL IN PLANNING A NEW PRODUCT? 

The average American male is not nearly as concerned with holding up his pants, as he is about showing that he owns a beautiful belt, or a rare, unusual, or costly one. Beauty, rarity, unusualness and costliness are “status symbols.” They are psychological and vital fac- tors of “prestige identification” and are implements of his ego. 

12. EVOLVING A SYMBOL OF QUALITY 

The tests of the Chevron-Crest image, by itself, and of the package as a whole, show clearly that the Chevron- Crest is a symbol people feel. They are deeply affected by it. But this symbol, like many emotionally significant symbols, people feel, is not a subject for discussion. 

13. WHAT IS THERE IN A LOGO? 

Before alert managers make any kind of marketing decision, they submit the problem to reliable marketing research. The following, although in part, is the actual report of how the managers of Nescafé proceeded with their examination of the logotype on the Nescafé label and the label as a whole. 

14. HOW IMPORTANT IS AN OLD SYMBOL? 

The two tests showed clearly that Hawley & Hoops had a valuable property in the Uncle Ben’s Rice symbol and that the “appetite appeal” illustration was a great asset indeed. These are among the most remark- able test results of an old brand symbol we have ever seen. 

15. IMPROVING THE TASTE WITHOUT CHANGING THE INGREDIENTS 

On page 179, Table XXIV—“Attitudes Ranked” shows an interesting picture of semantic contrasts. Note that “higher price” and “better quality” are at the top with the new design. “Lower price” and “poorer flavor” are at the top with the old label. 

16. WHAT’S IN A NAME? 

The name has a quantitative connotation. It has an “image” of quantity, not of quality. “The product you describe needs a name that has quality connotations.” 

17. HOW IMPORTANT IS A TRADEMARK? 

This report alone demonstrates that brand-identifying designs play major roles in marketing and that design details are vital factors in the success or failure of a marketing program. 

18. DEVELOPING A PACKAGE WITH THE AID OF RESEARCH 

The tests gave management a basis for making a marketing decision in regard to the package for a product of high quality. 

19. DOES THE AD UPGRADE THE PRODUCT? 

Conducting Tests Nos. 2, 3 and 4 requires great know- how and many controls. These are not the kinds of tests that can be conducted by amateur researchers. Strictly controlled conditions must prevail in conducting such tests. Controls must be used in the de- sign of the test, in the consumer sampling and in administering it. The indirect approach is vital. Traditional, direct testing methods are not applicable here. 

20. GIVING CONSUMERS WHAT THEY WANT 

The Consoweld Corporation is consumer oriented. Top management, advertising, production, and creative department personnel are all consumer oriented. The executives have decision making conferences. The decisions are based on objective information of consumer interests and wants. 

21. THE IMAGE OF A WOMEN’S APPAREL SHOP 

The results of this study served as a basis for manage- ment decision in setting future policies in the operation of the store. 

22. SCIENTIFIC MARKETING OF BREAD AND OIL 

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