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My rating: 4 Stars
Building Strong Brands Review:
If you’re looking for a book that will help you to learn how to build a brand – then I would definitely suggest you this book written by a professor David A. Aaker who is teaching Marketing at University of California – Berkeley. Building a brand is not something that is easy, and especially is not easy to build a brand and keep it running successfully for a long time. I have to say that this books has very technical approach on building a brand strategies and you’ll not be able to comprehend everything at once.
This book is divided into 11 chapters, and here’s a quick overview of those chapters:
- What is a strong brand?
- The Saturn Story
- The brand identity system
- Organizational associations
- Brand personality
- Identity implementation
- Brand strategies over time
- Managing brand system
- Leveraging the brand
- Measuring brand equity across Products & Markets
- Organizing for brand building
Like I said it, this book is written in very technical way which will take time for understand everything, and taking notes it’s very important so you can get back and go through the notes several times so you can learn as much as possible. One thing that is great about this book is that, it’s full of the examples from real companies and their approach on building their brands and sub-brands over the years doing business. So be prepared to take as many notes as possible, I know that I did. If you like to see my notes, send me an email and I will send it to you – since I’ve read it on Scribd I have them in txt file.
There’s a downside to this book as well. Although, the books is fairly long and it’s only focused on how to create a brand; you will not be able to learn from this book how to manage your brand after you’ve build it and your company so you can have successful business many years to come. Examples such as Saturn used in this book – we all know that Saturn car company no longer exists; and second examples is Wells Fargo – we all know how they cheated their clients, but in this book they are used as an example of building the brand right way. Okay, they might done everything the correct way in the beginning, but something happened along the way which made them to switch on not so ethical way of doing business.
We can all use common sense when it comes to what need to be done correctly, and bring ethics and moral into the business in order to make that business successful long-term. But that might not be the case, businesses often fail and that is something that need better understanding. Learning about proper managing of the brand and company it’s very important – and if you’re looking to learn that as well from this book, I’m afraid that that you won’t. Author does have another book that is called “Managing Brand Equity” and I have to go through that one to see is that one good as well.
Overall for learning about how to start building your brand I would definitely suggest you to read this books because it is great material. You might want to prepare yourself because it is written by a professor and sometimes it can get a bit boring to read – like it is on regular classes.
If you like, you can read my other reviews of Entrepreneurship & Small Business Books
If you like, you can read my other reviews of Marketing & Sales Books
Also, check out my Best Business Books List
Building Strong Brands Summary:
1 – WHAT IS A STRONG BRAND?
THE KODAK STORY
In the 1870s, a photographer’s outfit included not only a large camera but also a sturdy tripod, glass plates, a big plate holder, a dark tent, a nitrate bath, and a water container.¹ You did not bring just a camera to take a picture; you brought the whole lab.
WHAT IS BRAND EQUITY?
Brand equity is a set of assets (and liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s customers. The major asset categories are:
1. Brand name awareness
2. Brand loyalty
3. Perceived quality
4. Brand associations
Awareness refers to the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumer’s mind. If consumers’ minds were full of mental billboards—each one depicting a single brand—then a brand’s awareness would be reflected in the size of its billboard.
- BRAND RECOGNITION: FAMILIARITY AND LIKING
- BRAND RECALL AND THE GRAVEYARD
- BRAND NAME DOMINANCE
- CREATING AWARENESS
Perceived quality is a brand association that is elevated to the status of a brand asset for several reasons:
• among all brand associations, only perceived quality has been shown to drive financial performance.
• perceived quality is often a major (if not the principal) strategic thrust of a business.
• perceived quality is linked to and often drives other aspects of how a brand is perceived.
- PERCEIVED QUALITY DRIVES FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
- PERCEIVED QUALITY AS A STRATEGIC THRUST
- PERCEIVED QUALITY AS A MEASURE OF “BRAND GOODNESS”
- CREATING PERCEPTIONS OF QUALITY
Brand loyalty, the third brand asset category, is excluded from many conceptualizations of brand equity.⁹ There are at least two reasons, however, why it is appropriate and useful to include it. First, a brand’s value to a firm is largely created by the customer loyalty it commands. Second, considering loyalty as an asset encourages and justifies loyalty-building programs which then help create and enhance brand equity.
- LOYALTY AND BRAND VALUE
- LOYALTY SEGMENTATION
- ENHANCING LOYALTY
- Frequent-Buyer Programs
- Customer Clubs
- Database Marketing
Managing Brand Equity emphasized that brand equity is supported in great part by the associations that consumers make with a brand. These associations might include product attributes, a celebrity spokesperson, or a particular symbol. Brand associations are driven by the brand identity—what the organization wants the brand to stand for in the customer’s mind. A key to building strong brands, then, is to develop and implement a brand identity.
BUILDING STRONG BRANDS: WHY IS IT HARD?
It is not easy to build brands in today’s environment. The brand builder who attempts to develop a strong brand is like a golfer playing on a course with heavy roughs, deep sandtraps, sharp doglegs, and vast water barriers. It is difficult to score well in such conditions. The brand builder can be inhibited by substantial pressures and barriers, both internal and external. To be able to develop effective brand strategies, it is useful to understand these pressures and barriers.
- 1. PRESSURE TO COMPETE ON PRICE
- 2. PROLIFERATION OF COMPETITORS
- 3. FRAGMENTING MARKETS AND MEDIA
- 4. COMPLEX BRAND STRATEGIES AND RELATIONSHIPS
- 5. BIAS TOWARD CHANGING STRATEGIES
- 6. BIAS AGAINST INNOVATION
- 7. PRESSURE TO INVEST ELSEWHERE: THE SINS OF COMPLACENCY AND GREED
- 8. SHORT-TERM PRESSURES
- BUILDING BRANDS: DIFFICULT, FEASIBLE, AND NECESSARY
2 – BUILDING A BRAND—THE SATURN STORY
SATURN: A STRONG BRAND?
As discussed in Chapter 1 and in Managing Brand Equity, there are four principal dimensions to brand equity: perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand awareness, and brand associations. In the sections below, Saturn’s performance on each of these dimensions will be considered.
- PERCEIVED QUALITY
HOW SATURN BUILT A BRAND
How did Saturn become a strong brand in only a few years? What were the key decisions, policies, and programs? Below is a description of seven areas of strategy that were potential contributors. The goal is not only to describe what was done but also to suggest the logic behind the strategies: why they were pursued, and how they were intended to contribute to the brand. Although certainly some elements of the Saturn strategy may have been critical, it was the synergy of the total program—rather than the power of any single element—that led to its success.
- THE MISSION: A WORLD-CLASS PRODUCT
- THE TEAM APPROACH: “A DIFFERENT KIND OF COMPANY”
- CREATING PERCEPTIONS BY SELLING THE COMPANY, NOT THE CAR
- CREATING A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SATURN AND THE CUSTOMER
- THE RETAILER STRATEGY
- A DIFFERENT KIND OF COMPANY, A DIFFERENT KIND OF CAR
- INTEGRATED COMMUNICATION
CHALLENGES FACING SATURN AND GENERAL MOTORS
A number of questions surface as Saturn moves from creating a brand to maintaining its strength and vitality. Can Saturn keep it going? What should General Motors do with its market success? It is a bit like the car-chasing dog who finally catches one: What does it do now? There are several issues and problems facing both General Motors and Saturn.
- KEEPING IT GOING
ASSESSING THE SATURN STORY
The Saturn story is about how a modest GM compact created a charisma and loyalty normally associated with brands like Harley-Davidson, the VW Beetle, or the Ford Mustang. Several lessons stand out. First, key elements of the Saturn brand (such as the retail buying experience) resonated with customers and were very different from those of competitors.
3 – THE BRAND IDENTITY SYSTEM
WHAT IS BRAND IDENTITY?
A person’s identity serves to provide direction, purpose, and meaning for that person. Consider how important the following questions are: What are my core values? What do I stand for? How do I want to be perceived? What personality traits do I want to project? What are the important relationships in my life?
BRAND IDENTITY TRAPS
- THE BRAND IMAGE TRAP
- THE BRAND POSITION TRAP
- THE EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE TRAP
- THE PRODUCT-ATTRIBUTE FIXATION TRAP
- A Brand Is More Than a Product
- Product-Attribute Research
- Limitations of Product-Attribute-Based Identities
- Fail to Differentiate
- Are Easy to Copy
- Assume a Rational Customer
- Limit Brand Extension Strategies
- Reduce Strategic Flexibility
- BROADENING THE CONCEPT OF A BRAND
- BREAKING OUT OF THE TRAPS
FOUR BRAND IDENTITY PERSPECTIVES
(1) a product, (2) an organization, (3) a person, and (4) a symbol. The perspectives are very different. Their goal is to help the strategist consider different brand elements and patterns that can help clarify, enrich, and differentiate an identity. A more detailed identity will also help guide implementation decisions.
- THE BRAND AS A PRODUCT: PRODUCT-RELATED ASSOCIATIONS
- The Product Scope: Associations with Product Class
- Product-Related Attributes
- Associations with Use Occasion
- Associations with Users
- Link to a Country or Region
- THE BRAND-AS-ORGANIZATION
- THE BRAND-AS-PERSON: BRAND PERSONALITY
- THE BRAND-AS-SYMBOL
THE IDENTITY STRUCTURE
Brand identity, as suggested by Figure 3–4, consists of a core identify and an extended identity. In addition the identity elements are organized into enduring patterns of meaning, often around the core identity elements. It is therefore important to understand core identity, extended identity and patterns of meaning.
- THE CORE IDENTITY
- THE EXTENDED IDENTITY
- COHESIVE, MEANINGFUL IDENTITY ELEMENT GROUPINGS
PROVIDING A VALUE PROPOSITION
The bottom line is that unless the role of a brand is simply to support other brands by providing credibility, the brand identity needs to provide a value proposition to the customer. What is a value proposition?
- FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS
- Limitations of Functional Benefits
- EMOTIONAL BENEFITS
- Fusing Functional and Emotional Benefits
- SELF-EXPRESSIVE BENEFITS
- Self-Expressive Versus Emotional Benefits
- THE ROLE OF PRICE
A brand does not always need to drive the purchase decision; sometimes it plays an endorser role.
THE BOTTOM LINE: A BRAND-CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP
A brand-customer relationship can be based upon a value proposition. For example, a customer may be loyal to Maytag because it delivers, at a fair price, the functional benefit of reliability and the emotional benefit of feeling secure and confident. Or the relationship may need to emanate directly from the brand identity, especially when the value proposition does not effectively capture the relationship.
WORKING WITH MULTIPLE BRAND IDENTITIES
When multiple identities are needed, the goal should be to have a common set of associations, some of which will be in the core identity. The identity for each market would then be embellished, but in a way that is consistent with the common identity elements.
TOWARD UNDERSTANDING BRAND IDENTITY
The understanding and management of brand identity are keys to building strong brands and thus creating brand equity.
4 – ORGANIZATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
THE BODY SHOP STORY
In 1976, The Body Shop, an international manufacturer and retailer of skin and hair care products that breaks all the rules, began life in Brighton, England, when Anita Roddick opened her first store. Most cosmetic brands have identities based on glamorous user imagery and powerful functional, emotional, and self-expressive benefits supported by dramatic packaging and heavy advertising. In sharp contrast, The Body Shop sold its products with a hype-free presentation, reflecting values that set it apart from its competitors. The firm’s “profits with principle” philosophy continues to provide a dramatic source of differentiation.
THE STORY OF BRANDING IN JAPAN
Japanese firms, in general, look at brand strategy very differently than firms in other nations. First, they are preoccupied, even obsessed, with their image. Second, they often put their name on a wide variety of products, making their corporate brand the ultimate range brand (the general name for a brand that ranges over product classes). Finally they are concerned with the internal impact of the brand identity on employees and prospective employees, as well as the external impact on customers and prospective customers.
THE BRAND AS ORGANIZATION
Brands in nearly all product classes are struggling to find points of distinction in the face of deteriorating market contexts. Powerful retailers and customers are focusing on price in an era of belt-tightening. A price emphasis is further fostered by aggressive or desperate competitors and by defensive players unwilling to cede market position. Product innovations are quickly copied or attract only small niches. How can brands differentiate themselves and maintain an advantage?
- THE CORPORATE BRAND
- ORGANIZATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS NEED NOT REFLECT A CORPORATION
- SOCIETY/COMMUNITY ORIENTATION
- Have a Program
- PERCEIVED QUALITY
- Retail Brands
- CONCERN FOR CUSTOMERS
- PRESENCE AND SUCCESS
- LOCAL VERSUS GLOBAL
- Going Local
- Going Global
HOW ORGANIZATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS WORK
• A value proposition or customer relationship based on the organizational associations
• Credibility to other brands
• A vehicle to clarify and crystallize the organizational culture and values inside the organization
PROVIDING A VALUE PROPOSITION OR CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP
- PROVIDING CREDIBILITY
- INTERNAL IMPACT
- WHEN TO USE ORGANIZATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
- ORGANIZATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AS A SUSTAINABLE ADVANTAGE
5 – BRAND PERSONALITY
THE HARLEY-DAVIDSON STORY
One measure of brand loyalty is the percentage of customers who tattoo a brand’s symbol on their body. By that measure, Harley-Davidson has the highest loyalty of any brand in the world. In fact, the most popular tattoo in the United States is the Harley-Davidson symbol.
- BRAND PERSONALITIES
MEASURING BRAND PERSONALITY
The same vocabulary used to describe a person can be used to describe a brand personality. In particular, a brand can be described by demographics (age, gender, social class, and race), life- style (activities, interests, and opinions) or human personality traits (such as extroversion, agreeableness, and dependability).
HOW A BRAND PERSONALITY IS CREATED
- User Imagery
WHY USE BRAND PERSONALITY?
- ENRICHING UNDERSTANDING
- CONTRIBUTING TO A DIFFERENTIATING IDENTITY
- GUIDING THE COMMUNICATION EFFORT
THE SELF-EXPRESSION MODEL
- HOW THE BRAND HELPS TO EXPRESS A PERSONALITY
- Feelings Engendered by the Brand Personality
- The Brand as a Badge
- The Brand Becomes Part of the Self
- MULTIPLE PERSONALITIES
- BRAND PERSONALITY AND SELF-EXPRESSION NEEDS MUST FIT
THE RELATIONSHIP BASIS MODEL
- THE BRAND AS A FRIEND
- WHAT IF THE BRAND SPOKE TO YOU?
- THE BRAND AS AN ACTIVE RELATIONSHIP PARTNER
- BRAND RELATIONSHIP QUALITY
THE FUNCTIONAL BENEFIT REPRESENTATION MODEL
- THE SYMBOL
- COUNTRY OR REGION ASSOCIATION
BRAND PERSONALITY VERSUS USER IMAGERY
- USING USER IMAGERY TO BECOME CONTEMPORARY
- USER IMAGERY AND REFERENCE GROUPS
- ON CREATING USER IMAGERY
BRAND PERSONALITY AS A SUSTAINABLE ADVANTAGE
Brands that have a personality should consider enhancing it and making it a point of leverage within the brand identity. Those without personalities are usually vulnerable, exposed to attacks like stationary fortresses.
6 – IDENTITY IMPLEMENTATION
THE BRAND POSITION
- A PART OF THE IDENTITY/VALUE PROPOSITION
- Look to the Core Identity
- Identify Points of Leverage
- The Value Proposition: Benefits That Drive Relationships
- THE TARGET AUDIENCE
- ACTIVE COMMUNICATION
- Brand Position and the Brand Image
- Augmenting an Image
- Reinforcing an Image
- Diffusing an Image
- DEMONSTRATE AN ADVANTAGE
- Resonate with the Customer
- Differentiate Oneself from Competitors
- Matching Versus Beating Competitors
- BE FEASIBLE
ACHIEVING BRILLIANCE IN EXECUTION
- GENERATE ALTERNATIVES
- SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS
Tracking can be based on quantitative surveys, where structured questions and scales allow an assessment of how customer perceptions have been affected by the brand positioning effort. Tracking can also be based on qualitative research, which systematically elicits customer perceptions through regular focus groups or in-depth interviews. A key to qualitative research is to be exposed to a cross-section of the target audience and to know what to ask. The value of a rich, textured identity is that it leads to dialogues with customers that get beyond functional benefits to a deeper understanding of relationships.
A STRATEGIC BRAND ANALYSIS
- CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
- Customer Motivations
- Unmet Needs
- COMPETITOR ANALYSIS
- Competitor Brand Image/Position
- Grouping Competitors’ Positions
- Changes in Competitor Images
- Competitor Strengths and Vulnerabilities
- SELF-ANALYSIS OF THE BRAND
- Existing Brand Image
- Brand Heritage
- Soul of the Brand
- Links to Other Brands
THE POWER OF BRAND IDENTITY AND POSITION
- GUIDES AND ENHANCES BRAND STRATEGY
- IMPROVES BRAND MEMORABILITY
- PROVIDES MEANING AND FOCUS TO THE ORGANIZATION
7 – BRAND STRATEGIES OVER TIME
THE GENERAL ELECTRIC STORY
Four principles that have guided GE through the years have contributed to its success.
WHY CHANGE IDENTITIES, POSITIONS, OR EXECUTIONS?
- RATIONALE 1: THE IDENTITY/EXECUTION WAS POORLY CONCEIVED
- RATIONALE 2: THE IDENTITY/EXECUTION IS OBSOLETE
- RATIONALE 3: THE IDENTITY/EXECUTION APPEALS TO A LIMITED MARKET
- RATIONALE 4: THE IDENTITY/EXECUTION IS NOT CONTEMPORARY
- RATIONALE 5: THE IDENTITY/EXECUTION IS TIRED
WHY CONSISTENCY (IF DONE WELL) IS BETTER
- THE CONSISTENCY OPTION
- THE BENEFITS OF CONSISTENCY
- Ownership of a Position
- Ownership of Identity Symbol
- Cost Efficiencies
- A No-Brainer!
CONSISTENCY OVER TIME: WHY IS IT HARD?
- THE MINDSET OF THE MANAGERS
- Problem Solver/Action Orientation
- High Aspirations
- Owned by Predecessor Identity/Execution
- STRATEGIC MISCONCEPTIONS
- A New Identity/Execution Is Ineffective
- A New Paradigm Requires a New Identity/ Execution
- A Superior Identity/Execution Can Be Found
- Customers Are Bored with a Tired or Stodgy Identity/Execution
- THE PANIC ATTACK
THE SEARCH FOR THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH
- EVOLVING AN IDENTITY
- New Products
- AUGMENTING THE IDENTITY
- Adding User Imagery
- Product Extension
- Adding an Emotional Benefit
- The Use of Sub-Brands
- PROVIDING LINKS TO THE HERITAGE IDENTITY
- The Heritage of Innovation
- BUILDING ON EQUITY
8 – MANAGING BRAND SYSTEMS
TOWARD A SYSTEM OF BRANDS
- BRANDS SYSTEM OBJECTIVES
- BRAND HIERARCHIES
- UNDERSTANDING BRAND ROLES
A driver brand is a brand that drives the purchase decision; its identity represents what the customer primarily expects to receive from the purchase. The brand that plays the driver role represents the value proposition that is central to the purchase decision and use experience.
THE ENDORSER ROLE
In the endorser role, a brand provides support and credibility to the driver brand’s claims. Because the corporate brand usually represents an organization with people, culture, values and programs, it is well suited to support a driver brand, and thus it often plays the endorser role.
Attempting to support and grow all brands is tempting. Such a policy, however, usually reduces the chances that really strong brands will be created or maintained. Instead, resources often are expended unproductively on problem brands. Thus a strategic imperative is to allocate resources by classifying brands into divestment candidates, milkers, and strategic brands.
- DESCRIBE OFFERINGS
- Specify Segments
- Prefixes and Suffixes
- STRUCTURE AND CLARIFY OPTIONS
- AUGMENT/MODIFY THE IDENTITY BY CHANGING ASSOCIATIONS
- EXPLOIT MARKET OPPORTUNITIES
- BRANDING A FEATURE
- BRANDING A COMPONENT
- BRANDING A SERVICE PROGRAM
A silver bullet is a sub-brand or branded benefit that is employed as a vehicle for changing or supporting the brand image of a parent brand. The term was first coined by Regis McKenna, who observed that the images of corporate brand names in the high-tech world were influenced by key products. While Regis called products such as these silver bullets, the focus here is on brands.
- BRANDED BENEFITS AS SILVER BULLETS
HOW MANY BRANDS?
- 1. IS THE BRAND SUFFICIENT DIFFERENT TO MERIT A NEW NAME?
- 2. WILL A NEW NAME REALLY ADD VALUE?
- 3. WILL AN EXISTING BRAND BE PLACED AT RISK IF IT IS USED ON A NEW PRODUCT?
- 4. WILL THE BUSINESS SUPPORT A NEW BRAND NAME?
TOWARD A BRANDING STRATEGY
Seeing a set of brands as a brand system helps to create an effective and efficient branding strategy. Brands do not exist in isolation, but rather relate to other brands in the system. An important role for a brand is to help support other brands in the system and to avoid creating confusion or using an inconsistent identity. The idea is to create synergy and clarity and to avoid conflicting messages.
9 – LEVERAGING THE BRAND
THE HEALTHY CHOICE STORY
The power of a brand to extend itself depends on the breadth of product lines that can be related to the core brand identity in terms of the latter’s value proposition and basis of relationship.
THE KINGSFORD CHARCOAL STORY
Kingsford is an example of a disciplined brand. While there have been numerous line extensions, the brand has not strayed far from its identity.
LEVERAGING THE BRAND
One recipe for strategic success is to create and leverage assets. With its awareness, perceived quality, associations and customer loyalty, a brand is usually the most powerful asset that a firm owns. A strategic question, then, is how that brand can be leveraged to create larger and stronger business entities.
- EXPANDING THE USER BASE
- PROVIDING VARIETY
- ENERGIZING A BRAND
- MANAGING TRUE INNOVATION
- BLOCKING OR INHIBITING COMPETITORS
MOVING THE BRAND DOWN
- DRIVING FORCES
- MOVING DOWN IS EASY; PROTECTING THE BRAND IS HARD
- DROPPING THE PRICE AND MAINTAINING QUALITY PERCEPTIONS
- THE USE OF SUB-BRANDS
- DESCRIPTIVE SUB-BRANDS FOR VALUE POSITIONING
- WILL THE IDENTITY STRETCH?
- CREATING A DIFFERENT PERSONALITY: THE PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP
- DISTINGUISHING THE SUB-BRAND
MOVING A BRAND UP
- USING A NEW BRAND
- THE ROLE OF A SUB-BRAND
- SEPARATING THE SUB-BRAND
- WILL THE IDENTITY STRETCH?
- AN UPSCALE ENTRY AS A VEHICLE FOR DOWNSTREAM ENHANCEMENT
CREATING RANGE BRANDS
- RANGE BRANDS VERSUS BRAND EXTENSIONS
- The Range Brand Scope
- Product Line Identities
- A Dynamic Vision
- WHY RANGE BRANDS?
- WHAT PRODUCTS? HOW BROAD?
- INGREDIENT BRANDS
- COMPOSITE BRANDS
- THE SYNERGY OF CO-BRANDING
10 – MEASURING BRAND EQUITY ACROSS PRODUCTS AND MARKETS
YOUNG & RUBICAM’S BRAND ASSET VALUATOR
- DIFFERENTIATION MULTIPLIED BY RELEVANCE = BRAND STRENGTH
- ESTEEM MULTIPLIED BY KNOWLEDGE = BRAND STATURE
- THE POWER GRID
TOTAL RESEARCH’S EQUITREND
- PERCEIVED QUALITY AND PRICE
- PERCEIVED QUALITY AND USAGE
- BRAND EQUITY AND PRICE ELASTICITIES
INTERBRAND’S TOP BRANDS
WHY MEASURE BRAND EQUITY ACROSS PRODUCTS AND MARKETS?
- Benchmarking against the best
- Insights into brand building
- Tools to manage a brand portfolio
THE BRAND EQUITY TEN
- MEASURE CRITERIA
- USING RESEARCH TO REFINE THE MEASURE SET
- 1. PRICE PREMIUM
- 2. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION/LOYALTY
PERCEIVED QUALITY AND LEADERSHIP MEASURES
- 3. PERCEIVED QUALITY
- 4. LEADERSHIP AND POPULARITY
- 5. VALUE
- 6. BRAND PERSONALITY
- 7. ORGANIZATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
- 8. BRAND AWARENESS
MARKET BEHAVIOR MEASURES
- 9. MARKET SHARE
- 10. MARKET PRICE AND DISTRIBUTION COVERAGE
TOWARD A SINGLE VALUE OF BRAND EQUITY
- CREATING MEASURES OVER MARKETS
ADAPTING THE MEASURES TO A BRAND’S CONTEXT
The brand identity, value proposition, and brand position will usually also be central. If clear and operational, the brand position will indicate what is central to the communication program, particularly areas in which improvement should be sought. The brand identity and value proposition will suggest dimensions in which declines are to be avoided.
11 – ORGANIZING FOR BRAND BUILDING
- THE STRATEGIC IMPERATIVE: HAVING A BRAND IDENTITY
- COORDINATION ACROSS THE ORGANIZATION
- COORDINATING ACROSS MEDIA
- COORDINATING ACROSS MARKETS
ADAPTING THE ORGANIZATION FOR BRAND BUILDING
- THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
- WHO IS IN CHARGE OF THE BRAND?
- The Brand Manager
- The Brand Equity Manager
- The Range Brand Manager
- The Global Brand Manager
- The CEO
- The Brand Champion
- The Category Manager
- The Brand Committee
- The Communications Coordinator
THE ROLE OF THE AGENCY
- THE CONGLOMERATE COMMUNICATIONS COMPANY
- THE IN-HOUSE GENERALIST AGENCY
- NEW AGENCY ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS: THE SERVICE CLUSTER
- THE AGENCY AS A COMMUNICATION INTEGRATOR
- THE CLIENT APPROACH
TEN GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING STRONG BRANDS
- Brand identity
- Value proposition
- Brand position
- Consistency over time
- Brand system
- Brand leverage
- Tracking brand equity
- Brand responsibility
- Invest in brands
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